Trade barriers, unrelated to tariffs, are impeding Canada’s grain industry from seeing the full benefits of the Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU. A recent report from the Chamber of Commerce states that overcoming these non-tariff trade barriers will require improved communications between industry and government, as well as increased transparency and regulatory harmonization. Canada and the EU signed CETA on October 30, 2016 and the deal has been provisionally applied since September 2017. Prior to CETA, agricultural trade between Canada and Europe was valued at some $3.5 billion annually. Under CETA’s provisional application, almost 94 per cent of EU tariff lines are duty free.